## Top 10 Accounting KPIs and How to Calculate them in Excel?

We can calculate any Finance & Accounting KPI values using Excel easily. In this article, Iย  am sharing the top 10 accounting KPI calculations. These are…

## Net Profit Margin

Net Profit Margin = Net Profit / Sales

Positive profit margin indicates business is profitable while negative indicates the business is in loss.

## Revenue Growth

Revenue Growth = This year revenue / last year revenue – 1

Tells you how much revenue has grown compared to previous period. You can use the same logic to calculate COGS growth, profit growth too.

## Quick Ratio

Quick Ratio = (Total Current Assets – Inventory) / Total Current Liabilities

Tells you how strong the liquidity of a business is.

QR of 1 or more indicates the business is able to pay off its current debts using the cash or cash equivalents it has on hand.ย

QR under 1 indicates the business would struggle to pay off its current debts with what it has on hand.

## Inventory Turnover

Inventory Turnover = COGS / Average Inventory

Inventory turnover measures how quickly a business is able to offload the inventory.ย

The actual value of Inventory Turnover and how to interpret it changes from business to business. As a rule, a higher Inventory Turnover indicates more efficient inventory cycle.

## Days Inventory Outstanding

Days Inventory Outstanding = Average Inventory / Cost of Goods Sold x 365

DIO or Days Inventory Outstanding measures how much inventory a business is carrying. A lower number indicates well oiled manufacturing & inventory cycles while a higher number indicates sluggish demand or oversupply.ย

Please note that the typical values change from industry to industry and depend on other macro-economic factors.

For example, a vegetable business would have low DIO as the goods are naturally perishable, while a furniture business might have a high DIO as the goods do take long time to sell.

## Avg. Revenue Per User (ARPU)

ARPU = Total Revenues / Total Users

ARPU or Avg. Revenue per User reflects the amount of revenue generated per user. This is a useful measure in service business (especially software as a service or SAAS or web).

## Net Present Value

NPV = NPV(rate, cash flows)

Net present value indicates the current (or present) values of a series of cashflows that occur in future. We can use the NPV function in Excel to calculate this if the cashflows are uniformly spaced.

NPV is an extremely useful calculation to understand the financial soundness of a business decision.

## Compound Interest

Compound Interest = Principal * (1+rate of interest) ^ number of years – Principal

Excel doesn’t have a compound interest function, but we can easily calculate the same using a simple formula.ย

## CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate)

CAGR = RRI(duration, opening value, closing value)

CAGR measures the rate at which a business grew over a period of time. For example, if we say Apple grew at 10% CAGR since 2018 to 2023, it means, every year the sales of Apple went up by 10% compared to the previous year from 2018.

Excel doesn’t have a CAGR function but we can use the reverse IRR function – RRI to calculate the CAGR.

AAGR vs. CAGR:

AAGR or Average Annual Growth Rate simply measures the average of individual yearly growth rates (same as Revenue Growth we calculated in #2 above).ย

Consider adding AAGR (Average Annual Growth Rate) to your analysis as sometimes CAGR is hard to explain to others.

## Depreciation

Depreciation = the value of an asset lost during a period

Excel offers many functions to calculate depreciation of your assets or equipment. You can use below methods:

• Straight Line Method: This depreciates the asset value by the same amount every year until the end of its life. We can use SLN function for this.
• Declining Balance Method: This depreciates the asset value by same percentageย every year. You can use DB function in Excel to calculate this.
• Double Declining Balance Method:ย This uses an accelerated DB method to depreciate assets faster in the initial years.
• Variable Depreciation Method:ย You can use a mix of either SLN or Declining methods depending on your needs using the VDB function in Excel.

## Top 10 Accounting KPIs – Video

Learn more about all these calculations using the video below. You can also see it on my channel here.